# Opacity (optics) Research Materials

This page contains a list of user images about Opacity (optics) which are relevant to the point and besides images, you can also use the tabs in the bottom to browse Opacity (optics) news, videos, wiki information, tweets, documents and weblinks.

Opacity (optics) Images

Rihanna - Take A Bow
Music video by Rihanna performing Take A Bow. YouTube view counts pre-VEVO: 66288884. (C) 2008 The Island Def Jam Music Group.
Red vs. Blue S8 Tex fights Reds and Blues in awesome action sequence
Go to RoosterTeeth.com for all of season 8 of RvB!
P!nk - Just Give Me A Reason (Official Lyric Video)
The Truth About Love available on iTunes NOW http://smarturl.it/tal Music video by P!nk performing Just Give Me A Reason. (C) 2012 RCA Records, a division of...
MACKLEMORE X RYAN LEWIS - OTHERSIDE REMIX FEAT. FENCES [MUSIC VIDEO]
The Otherside Remix Music Video was filmed in various locations for about a year and a half throughout 2010-2011. It is the duo's second video collaboration ...
Justin Timberlake - Mirrors (Boyce Avenue feat. Fifth Harmony cover) on iTunes & Spotify
Win Free Tickets + VIP Meet & Greets: http://smarturl.it/BATour iTunes: http://smarturl.it/BAiTunes Spotify: http://smarturl.it/BoyceCCV2bSpotify - - - - - -...
Steve Jobs vs Bill Gates. Epic Rap Battles of History Season 2.
Download This Song: http://bit.ly/KzLBGB Click to Tweet this Vid-ee-oh! http://bit.ly/Nt9lg8 Hi. My name is Nice Peter, and this is EpicLLOYD, and this is th...
MACKLEMORE & RYAN LEWIS - CAN'T HOLD US FEAT. RAY DALTON (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO)
Macklemore & Ryan Lewis present the official music video for Can't Hold Us feat. Ray Dalton. Can't Hold Us on iTunes: https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/cant-...
Draw My Life- Jenna Marbles
This video accidentally turned out kind of sad, ME SO SOWWY IT NOT POSED TO BE SAD WHO WANTS HUGS AND COOKIES? Also, FYI for anyone attempting this, it takes...
The Greatest R/C Car Chase Ever
Tweet! http://bit.ly/TqQ3oP Illegal street racers take on the law in the world's most intense police chase! Sort of. Special thanks to Rob and Big as well as...
Draw My Life - Ryan Higa
So i was pretty hesitant to make this video... but after all of your request, here is my Draw My Life video! Check out my 2nd Channel for more vlogs: http://...
Key & Peele: Substitute Teacher
A substitute teacher from the inner city refuses to be messed with while taking attendance.
Jack Sparrow (feat. Michael Bolton)
Buy at iTunes: http://goo.gl/zv4o9. New album on sale now! http://turtleneckandchain.com.
Master Chief vs Leonidas. Epic Rap Battles of History Season 2.
download this song: http://bit.ly/ERB17 click to tweet this vid-ee-oh! http://clicktotweet.com/vCJ_8 This. Is. Merchandise: http://bit.ly/ERBMerch Hi. My nam...

Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light. In radiative transfer, it describes the absorption and scattering of radiation in a medium, such as a plasma, dielectric, shielding material, glass, etc. An opaque object is neither transparent (allowing all light to pass through) nor translucent (allowing some light to pass through). When light strikes an interface between two substances, in general some may be reflected, some absorbed, some scattered, and the rest transmitted (also see refraction). Reflection can be diffuse, for example light reflecting off a white wall, or specular, for example light reflecting off a mirror. An opaque substance transmits no light, and therefore reflects, scatters, or absorbs all of it. Both mirrors and carbon black are opaque. Opacity depends on the frequency of the light being considered. For instance, some kinds of glass, while transparent in the visual range, are largely opaque to ultraviolet light. More extreme frequency-dependence is visible in the absorption lines of cold gases. Opacity can be quantified in many ways; for example, see the article mathematical descriptions of opacity.

For general information on what makes an object or medium opaque, see the articles on absorption, reflection, and scattering. These are the processes that lead to opacity.

## Quantitative definition

The words "opacity" and "opaque" are often used as colloquial terms for objects or media with the properties described above. However, there is also a specific, quantitative definition of "opacity", used in astronomy, plasma physics, and other fields, given here.

In this use, "opacity" is another term for the mass attenuation coefficient (or, depending on context, mass absorption coefficient, the difference is described here) $\kappa_\nu$ at a particular frequency $\nu$ of electromagnetic radiation.

More specifically, if a beam of light with frequency $\nu$ travels through a medium with opacity $\kappa_\nu$ and mass density $\rho$, both constant, then the intensity will be reduced with distance x according to the formula

$I(x) = I_0 e^{-\kappa_\nu \rho x}$

where

• x is the distance the light has traveled through the medium
• $I(x)$ is the intensity of light remaining at distance x
• $I_0$ is the initial intensity of light, at $x = 0$

For a given medium at a given frequency, the opacity has a numerical value that may range between 0 and infinity, with units of length2/mass.

### Planck and Rosseland opacity

It is customary to define the average opacity, calculated using a certain weighting scheme. Planck opacity uses normalized Planck black body radiation energy density distribution as the weighting function, and averages $\kappa_\nu$ directly. Rosseland opacity (after Svein Rosseland), on the other hand, uses a temperature derivative of Planck distribution (normalized) as the weighting function, and averages $\kappa_\nu^{-1}$,

$\frac{1}{\kappa} = \frac{\int_0^{\infty} \kappa_{\nu}^{-1} u(\nu, T) d\nu }{\int_0^{\infty} u(\nu,T) d\nu}$.

The photon mean free path is $\lambda_\nu = (\kappa_\nu \rho)^{-1}$. The Rosseland opacity is derived in the diffusion approximation to the radiative transport equation. It is valid whenever the radiation field is isotropic over distances comparable to or less than a radiation mean free path, such as in local thermal equilibrium. In practice, the mean opacity for Thomson electron scattering is:

$\kappa_{\rm es} = 0.20(1+X) {\rm\, cm}^2{\rm \,g}^{-1}$

where $X$ is the hydrogen mass fraction. For nonrelativistic thermal bremsstrahlung, or free-free transitions, it is:

$\kappa_{\rm ff}(\rho, T) = 0.64 \times 10^{23} (\rho[ {\rm g}~ {\rm\, cm}^{-3}])(T[{\rm K}])^{-7/2} {\rm\, cm}^2 {\rm\, g}^{-1}$.[1]

The Rosseland mean absorption coefficient including both scattering and absorption (also called the extinction coefficient) is:

$\frac{1}{\kappa} = \frac{\int_0^{\infty} (\kappa_{\nu, {\rm es}} + \kappa_{\nu, {\rm ff}})^{-1} u(\nu, T) d\nu }{\int_0^{\infty} u(\nu,T) d\nu}$.[2]

## References

1. ^ Stuart L. Shapiro and Saul A. Teukolsky, "Black Holes, White Dwarfs, and Neutron Stars" 1983, ISBN 0-471-87317-9.
2. ^ George B. Rybicki and Alan P. Lightman, "Radiative Processes in Astrophysics" 1979 ISBN 0-471-04815-1.
News
Documents
Don't believe everything they write, until confirmed from WEBSITE REPORTED site.

### What is WEBSITE REPORTED?

It's a social web research tool
that helps anyone exploring anything.

Stay up-to-date. Socialize with us!
We strive to bring you the latest
from the entire web.